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how does a solar photovoltaic system work diagram

How Does a Solar Photovoltaic System Work: A Diagram Explanation


Solar photovoltaic systems are a popular and sustainable way to generate electricity by converting sunlight into usable energy. This article will provide a clear explanation, with the help of a diagram, showing how a solar photovoltaic system works.

What is a Solar Photovoltaic System?

A solar photovoltaic (PV) system is made up of solar panels, an inverter, and other electrical components that work together to generate electricity from sunlight. Solar panels, also known as PV modules, are made up of multiple photovoltaic cells, which are responsible for converting sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity.

The Components of a Solar Photovoltaic System

Solar Panels

Solar panels are the most visible components of a solar PV system. These panels are made up of solar cells, usually made of silicon, which absorb sunlight and convert it into electricity through the photovoltaic effect.


The inverter is a crucial component of a solar PV system as it converts the DC electricity produced by the solar panels into alternating current (AC) electricity, which is used in homes and businesses.

Mounting Structure

The mounting structure is responsible for holding the solar panels in place and ensuring that they are positioned at the optimal angle to capture as much sunlight as possible.

Electrical Components

Various electrical components such as wiring, fuses, and circuit breakers are essential for the proper functioning of a solar PV system and for connecting the system to the electrical grid.

Monitoring System

A monitoring system is often included in a solar PV system to track the energy production and performance of the system, allowing users to monitor the energy output and ensure everything is running efficiently.

How Does a Solar Photovoltaic System Work?

When sunlight hits the solar panels, the photovoltaic cells absorb the energy and create an electric field, causing the electrons to flow and generate direct current (DC) electricity. The inverter then converts this DC electricity into alternating current (AC) electricity, which can be used to power homes, businesses, and other electrical devices.


Solar photovoltaic systems are an excellent way to generate sustainable and renewable energy from the sun. By understanding how these systems work, individuals and businesses can make informed decisions about using solar energy to power their lives and contribute to a more sustainable future.

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