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how is photovoltaic energy produced

How is Photovoltaic Energy Produced


Photovoltaic energy is a clean and renewable source of energy that is produced by converting sunlight into electricity. This article will explore the process of how photovoltaic energy is produced.

Photovoltaic Cells

1. Composition

Photovoltaic cells, also known as solar cells, are made up of semiconductor materials such as silicon. When sunlight falls on these cells, it knocks electrons loose from their atoms which then creates a flow of electricity.

2. The Photoelectric Effect

This process, also known as the photoelectric effect, is what allows photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into electricity without any moving parts or noise.

Photovoltaic Panels

1. Arrangement of Cells

Photovoltaic cells are arranged in panels to generate significant amounts of electricity. These panels can be installed on rooftops or in open fields to capture sunlight.

2. Inverter

The electricity generated by photovoltaic panels is direct current (DC), but most homes and businesses use alternating current (AC). Therefore, an inverter is used to convert the DC electricity into AC electricity for use in buildings.

3. Battery Storage

In some cases, photovoltaic energy is stored in batteries for use when sunlight is not available, such as during the night or on cloudy days.

Integration into the Grid

1. Grid-Tied Systems

Many photovoltaic energy systems are connected to the electric grid. Any excess electricity generated by the system can be fed back into the grid, and the owner of the system may receive credits or payments for the energy they contribute.

2. Net Metering

Net metering is a system that allows photovoltaic energy system owners to sell excess energy back to the grid and buy energy from the grid when their system is not producing enough electricity, effectively allowing them to use the grid as a giant battery.


Photovoltaic energy is an increasingly popular form of renewable energy production. By understanding the process of how it is produced, we can better appreciate its benefits and potential for a sustainable future.

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