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how solar photovoltaic cells are made

How Solar Photovoltaic Cells are Made


Solar photovoltaic cells are a key component of solar panels, which are used to convert sunlight into electricity. These cells are made using a precise and complex manufacturing process, involving a variety of materials and techniques.

Materials Used

Silicon Wafers

The most common material used in the production of solar photovoltaic cells is silicon. Silicon wafers are used as the base material for the cells, and they are typically doped with small amounts of other materials to create a semiconductive property.

Metal Contacts

Metal contacts, such as silver or aluminum, are used to collect the electrical current produced by the solar cells. These contacts are typically applied to the surface of the cells using a screen printing process.

Encapsulation Materials

Solar cells are typically encapsulated in a protective material to ensure their durability and longevity. This encapsulation material is usually made of a combination of glass and plastic, providing a barrier against moisture and physical damage.

Manufacturing Process

Wafer Production

The first step in the manufacturing process involves the production of silicon wafers. This is typically done by slicing a large ingot of silicon into thin wafers using a wire saw.

Cell Formation

Once the wafers are produced, they are then treated to create the semiconductive properties necessary for solar cells. This involves a process of doping the wafers with other materials and applying metal contacts to create the necessary electrical connections.


After the cells are formed, they are then encapsulated in a protective material. This involves placing the cells between layers of glass and plastic, which are then sealed together using a lamination process.

Quality Control

Throughout the manufacturing process, strict quality control measures are implemented to ensure that the cells meet the necessary performance and durability standards. This involves testing the electrical output of the cells and performing visual inspections to check for any defects.

Final Assembly

Once the cells have passed quality control, they are then assembled into solar panels by connecting them together in a series or parallel configuration. The panels are then framed and equipped with the necessary components for installation, such as mounting hardware and junction boxes.


The manufacturing process for solar photovoltaic cells is a precise and intricate procedure, involving the use of specific materials and techniques. By understanding the steps involved in this process, we can gain a greater appreciation for the technology that allows us to harness the power of the sun for electricity generation.

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