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what are solar photovoltaic cells made of

What Are Solar Photovoltaic Cells Made Of

Solar photovoltaic cells, also known as solar cells, are devices that convert sunlight into electricity. They are the key component in solar panels and play a crucial role in the generation of clean and renewable energy. But have you ever wondered what these cells are made of? In this article, we will explore the materials that make up solar photovoltaic cells.


Silicon is the most common material used in the production of solar cells. It is a semiconductor that has the ability to absorb photons from sunlight and convert them into electrons, which in turn creates an electric current. Silicon can exist in two forms: monocrystalline and polycrystalline. Monocrystalline silicon cells are made from a single continuous crystal structure, while polycrystalline silicon cells are made from multiple smaller crystals. The choice between monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells depends on factors such as efficiency, cost, and production processes.

Semiconductor Materials

Apart from silicon, other semiconductor materials such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) are also used in the production of solar cells. These thin-film solar cells offer advantages such as flexibility, light weight, and ease of manufacturing. They are often used in applications where traditional silicon cells may not be practical, such as in portable devices and building-integrated photovoltaics.

Transparent Conductive Coatings

In order to collect the electricity generated by the solar cells, transparent conductive coatings are required. These coatings are typically made from materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide. They are applied to the surface of the cells to allow light to pass through while also providing a conductive path for the electrons.

Encapsulation Materials

To protect the solar cells from environmental factors such as moisture, temperature fluctuations, and physical damage, encapsulation materials are used. These materials, often made from ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or other polymers, are applied as a layer on top of the cells and are usually sandwiched between a glass cover and a backsheet. The encapsulation materials not only provide protection but also contribute to the structural integrity of the solar panel.


Solar photovoltaic cells are made from a combination of materials such as silicon, semiconductor materials, transparent conductive coatings, and encapsulation materials. Each of these components plays a vital role in the performance and durability of the cells, ultimately contributing to the overall efficiency and reliability of solar panels. As the demand for renewable energy continues to grow, the development and improvement of these materials will be crucial in advancing the technology and affordability of solar photovoltaic cells.

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