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what energy change takes place in a photovoltaic cell

What energy change takes place in a photovoltaic cell


A photovoltaic cell, also known as a solar cell, is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. This process involves the transformation of light energy into electrical energy. In this article, we will discuss the energy change that takes place in a photovoltaic cell and its significance.

Energy Change in a Photovoltaic Cell

1. Absorption of sunlight

When sunlight falls on the surface of a photovoltaic cell, the semiconductor material within the cell absorbs the photons present in the light. The energy from these photons is then transferred to the electrons in the material, causing them to become excited and break free from their atoms.

2. Generation of electric current

Once the electrons are free, they create a flow of electric current when they move in response to an applied voltage. This flow of electrons constitutes the generation of electricity in a photovoltaic cell. The electrical energy produced can then be used to power various devices and systems.

3. Direct current to alternating current conversion

In some cases, the electricity generated by a photovoltaic cell is in the form of direct current (DC). In order to make it compatible with the power grid and most electrical appliances, the DC electricity needs to be converted into alternating current (AC) through an inverter. This energy conversion process is essential for the efficient utilization of solar energy.

4. Significance of energy change in a photovoltaic cell

The energy change that takes place in a photovoltaic cell is crucial for the widespread adoption of solar energy as a renewable and sustainable source of power. By converting sunlight into electricity, photovoltaic cells enable the harnessing of clean and inexhaustible energy, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and minimizing environmental impact.

5. Future developments

Ongoing research and development in the field of photovoltaics aim to further improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of solar cells. Advances in materials, manufacturing processes, and design techniques are expected to enhance the energy conversion capabilities of photovoltaic cells, making solar power an even more viable and attractive option for meeting global energy needs.


In conclusion, the energy change that takes place in a photovoltaic cell involves the conversion of light energy into electrical energy, which can be utilized for various applications. This transformative process plays a pivotal role in the utilization of solar energy for sustainable power generation, and ongoing advancements promise to make solar cells even more efficient and accessible in the future.

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