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what is a photovoltaic cell made of

What is a Photovoltaic Cell?

A photovoltaic cell, also known as a solar cell, is a device that converts light energy into electricity. It is a key component of solar panels and is widely used in renewable energy systems.

Composition of a Photovoltaic Cell

A photovoltaic cell is typically made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. The cell is composed of two different layers: the p-type layer, which has an abundance of positively charged “holes”, and the n-type layer, which has an abundance of negatively charged electrons. When light hits the cell, it creates an electric field across the layers, causing the electrons to move in one direction, creating an electric current. This flow of electrons is what produces electricity.

Semiconductor Materials Used

The most common semiconductor material used in photovoltaic cells is silicon. Other materials, such as cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium selenide, are also used in the manufacturing of solar cells.

Construction of the Cell

The photovoltaic cell is typically housed in a protective outer layer, such as glass, to safeguard it from environmental factors. The top layer of the cell is coated with an antireflective material to maximize light absorption. Beneath the top layer are the p-type and n-type layers, followed by a back layer that helps in the efficient collection of electrons.

Functioning of the Photovoltaic Cell

When sunlight strikes the surface of the cell, it excites the electrons, causing them to break free from their respective atoms. The electric fields in the cell then force these free electrons to flow in a specific direction, creating an electric current. This direct current (DC) electricity can then be used to power various devices or can be converted into alternating current (AC) electricity for use in homes and businesses.

Applications of Photovoltaic Cells

Photovoltaic cells are widely used in solar panels to generate electricity for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. They are also used in solar calculators, outdoor lights, and other small-scale electronic devices.


Photovoltaic cells play a vital role in the generation of clean and renewable energy. By harnessing the power of sunlight, these cells contribute to reducing our dependence on fossil fuels and mitigating the impact of climate change. As technology continues to advance, the efficiency and affordability of photovoltaic cells are expected to improve, further promoting the widespread adoption of solar energy.

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